Road freight transport is responsible for handling 90% of all Brazilian goods, according to data collected by ILOS. Due to the size of this market and its strong competitiveness, it is essential that managers and professionals in the sector know the main types of cargo vehicles in order to know how to choose the vehicles that best meet your business requirements.
Choosing the right vehicle for each trip benefits the company in a number of ways. This guarantees more logistical efficiency, eliminates unnecessary expenses, better satisfies customers, avoids risks and fines, etc. In this article, we explain some of the main types of freight vehicles and the importance of verifying their registration with the RNTRC. Check!
The main types of cargo vehicles
There are several types of cargo vehicles available, in order to meet different market applications, so it is up to logistics professionals to understand precisely what are their characteristics, weight limits, sizes, number of axles, among others. peculiarities. See this and more information below.
These are vehicles used for transporting light loads, for carrying out short-distance freight or within metropolitan areas. They are commonly used to deliver online shopping, small volumes of goods to markets, stores, etc. This is a broad category that includes:
- other lighter commercial vehicles.
A van, for example, has two axles and typically supports loads of up to 1200 kilograms.
VUC stands for Urban Cargo Vehicle and is also called 3/4. These are smaller vehicles that have been adapted to deliver in cities.
It has two axles, a maximum width of 2.2 meters, usually reaches a maximum length of 6.3 meters, and can carry up to 3 tons. Each municipality can set its own rules on size and weight limits for transporting LCVs in cities.
This type of truck has 2 axles, one front and one rear, and has a maximum capacity of 6 tons, with a PBT (total gross weight) of up to 16 tons. They are generally used to transport dry cargoes and various distributed products, such as sugar, oil, rice, cereals, among others.
Toco trucks are also widely used as a trunk for transporting changes and general cargo, and in many cases are equipped with a bucket for transporting sand, stone, mortar and other similar materials.
Also known as heavy truck, 6 × 2 or trucado, it is distinguished by its double axle in the body, it is up to 14 meters long and its body can be of different types, such as trunk, bulk carrier, sider, low grill, among others.
There are a total of 3 axles: 1 front and 2 rear with drive. One of the rear axles receives power from the engine and brings greater performance to the vehicle, allowing it to carry loads between 10 and 14 tonnes. The total weight of the truck will be 23 tons (PBT). It is common to see this type of vehicle transporting loads of cement, sugar and soybeans.
It is a four-axle truck, which makes it more efficient and can carry heavier loads. Its maximum capacity is up to 22 tons and its PBT reaches 29 tons.
This vehicle is widely used for transporting dry loads and can also serve other types of operations well.
simple mechanical horse
Commonly referred to as a single cart, it has two single axle drive wheels. It can be coupled to semi-trailers of different types, such as trunks, bulk carriers, low racks, container ships, siders, refrigerated etc. It can also be interconnected with two types of trailers to form the following sets:
- mechanical horse + 2-axle trailer: it has a capacity of up to 33 tons and a length of up to 18.15 meters;
- mechanical horse + 3-axle trailer: it has a capacity of 41.5 tonnes and also reaches 18.15 meters.
The simple mechanical horse is also known as a 4X2 or L horse. The types of products that can be transported vary a lot and depend on the type of bodywork attached to the mechanical horse.
Mechanical horse with three axles
The 6 × 2 tractor can also be called LS trailer or road tractor, it is very versatile, being suitable for transporting different kinds of loads. It has three axles: one front and two rear.
Since it is longer, it can keep the pressure lower when the wheels are on the ground and distribute the weight better, so it supports up to 32 tons with 41.5 tons of PBT.
Mechanical horse drawn
This type of cargo vehicle has many similarities with the previous one, it is known as a 6X4 or LT tractor, and its big difference is that both rear axles have traction.
For the traction of assemblies with PBTC greater than 57 tonnes, which require the transit of AET, it is compulsory to use this type of horse, very common in the transport of indivisible loads.
The birem, “romeo e julieta” or treminhão has seven axles and handles up to 57 tonnes. There is also a so-called twin-wheel model, which has nine axles, bringing its capacity to 74 meters.
Its length should not exceed 30 meters. The semi-trailers are towed with an LS truck trailer and linked together by a fifth wheel (type B).
This vehicle consists of two semi-trailers, has a total of nine axles and supports loads of up to 74 tonnes. Its semi-trailers are connected by a cart and pulled by a mechanical horse.
Journeys with this type of vehicle must have their route previously defined in order to obtain the Special Transit Authorization (AET).
The differences between the bi-train and the road-train
These are two types of cargo vehicles that often generate confusion for many professionals in the field. While both can have 9 axes, a marked difference is how the components engage.
The twin train uses the Type B hitch, which is a second fifth wheel at the rear of the first semitrailer. The road train uses the dolly, which is an independent platform placed on one or more axles supporting the second semi-trailer.
The second difference is in the number of joints. The first paired train has two joints (the fifth wheel of the truck and the two semi-trailers). As for the rodotrem, it has three joints:
- on the fifth wheel of the truck;
- on the front hitch of the truck;
- on the fifth wheel of the cart.
The importance of verifying the vehicle registration with the ANTT
The National Land Transport Agency (ANTT) requires that all vehicles intended for the road transport of goods for remuneration be entered in the National Register of Road Freight Carriers (RNRTC), which is a necessary entry to avoid the imposition of fines. .
The process for obtaining registration with the RNTRC can be viewed on the ANTT portal itself, and the application can be either in person or by a representative of ANTT units or accredited positions in the country.
There are still several other types of cargo vehicles, but after knowing the ones listed in this article, you will be able to make the ideal choice for transporting the most common goods in the Brazilian market. It should be noted that it is crucial to verify registration with the RNTRC and to comply with other legal requirements to avoid tax problems on your trips.
Like our Facebook page to keep tabs on our posts and stay up to date on the topic!